Price fixing and collusion to restrain output are, essentially, the same behavior. As we know from simple demand and supply analysis, restricting output causes price to increase.
- Examples of behaviors that are typically considered to be per se violations of antitrust law:
- Price Fixing
- Collusion to Restrain Output
- Division of Market Territories
- Examples of behaviors typically judged according to the rule of reason.
- Tying, Requirement, and Exclusive Dealing Contracts
Most of these behaviors we're already familiar with, however we will examine mergers in a bit more detail.
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