Demand Shift Changes Marginal Value and Optimal Provision    As always, demand can shift up or down for the usual reasons: a change in the price of a substitute or complement for the public good in question, a change in income, a change in tastes, and so on.

   In addition, demand can shift because differing numbers of people have access to the public good through changes in population or changes in technology. For example, as more people gain access to the internet, demand shifts out for public websites increasing their marginal value and increasing the optimal provision.

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